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16-bit Unicode

16-bit Unicode or Unicode Transformation Format (UTF-16) is a method of encoding character data, capable of encoding 1,112,064 possible characters in Unicode.

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2-Factor Authentication

Two-Factor Authentication, also known as 2FA, is an extra layer of security that requires users to use both their online password and their mobile phone to verify their identity in order to access a service or a web app. In addition to using their service credentials to access sensitive data, the user also receives a one-time passcode or PIN number on his token or via SMS.

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2-Way SMS Messaging

A system that incorporates both outbound (Mobile Terminated or MT) and inbound (Mobile Originated or MO) SMS into one fully-featured service. By using a dedicated number, a 2-Way SMS user can send and receive SMS through a web messaging platform by using complete solutions or APIs.

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2G Mobile Connection

2G is an acronym for second generation mobile telecommunications technology that was first launched in Finland in 1991. The main features of 2G mobile connection were digital encryption of conversations and messages, greater mobile phone penetration and the introduction of various data services for mobile phones, such as SMS messages.

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3G Mobile Connection

3G is an acronym for third generation mobile telecommunications technology that was first introduced in 1998 and later commercially in 2002 that enabled wireless data transfer rate of at least 200 kbit/s enabling the easier usage of mobile internet access and video calls.

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4G Mobile Connection

4G is an acronym for fourth generation mobile telecommunications technology. It was first introduced in Norway and Sweden in 2009 and enabled wireless data transfer rate of at least 100 Mbit/s.

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A

A2P (Application-to-Person) SMS Messaging

The process of sending mobile messages from an application to a mobile user. A2P SMS messaging is also called enterprise or professional SMS. Businesses can use it in several technical modes to communicate with consumers, authenticate users of online services, or deliver time-sensitive alerts. In all the cases, communication is initiated from a business application, and not an individual’s mobile phone, as is the case with P2P SMS.

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Alphanumeric Sender ID

The alphanumeric sender ID technology allows the sender to send messages using a custom, recognizable sender ID constructed from any combination of numeric and alpha characters (0-9, a-z, A-Z, _).

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Apache

Apache or Apache HTTP Server is the most used web server software on the internet. It is a free and open source software that is estimated to serve 50% of all active websites.

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App Notification

An app notification is a message or alert sent by an application to the user. Notifications sent this way do not require the application to be open and messages are displayed on the screen of the mobile even when the device is locked.

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B

Binary SMS Messages

Binary SMS messages allow sending of various types of rich-content, such as transferring ringtones, telephone system settings and WAP-Push via text messaging.

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Blacklist

A blacklist is a list of message recipients that decided to opt-out of receiving further SMS messages. Blacklists are mostly used for needs of promotional campaigns where companies give an option to the end customer so he or she does not receive messages irrelevant to them. In some countries having an opt-out inside every SMS message is obligatory by law.

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Business-as-a-Service

Business-as-a-Service (BaaS) is a new concept in A2P messaging managed services, allowing mobile operators to run their entire A2P business - with complete customer acquisition flow and support - without any investment or risk of ownership.

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C

Caller ID

Caller ID is a telecommunication service that enables users to identify incoming calls before answering. Caller ID is possible with mobile, analog, digital and VoIP calls.

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Carrier Billing

A type of mobile payments where the purchase amount is charged to the mobile phone bill, or deducted from the prepaid balance. Typically, direct billing is used for micropayments for digital and virtual goods but can also be used for other types of transactions - such as public transport tickets or for city parking. This type of mobile payment is not intended for the payment of physical goods. The mobile operator of the user wishing to make a DMB payment needs to support the technology in order for the payment to be made.

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Concatenated Messages

A concatenated short message service is used to overcome the limit on the number of characters that can be sent in a single SMS text message transmission (usually 160 chars). With this method, the sending device divides the long message into smaller ones that get recombined at the receiving end, with each message charged as a single SMS message.

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CPaaS (Communications Platform-as-a-Service)

Communications Platform-as-a-Service (CPaaS) refers to a cloud-based platform that provides the ability to developers to add communication services to their applications. It allows them to implement SMS, Voice or other messaging capabilities without developing their own communication solutions.

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D

DLR (Delivery Reporting)

Delivery reporting is a feature of SMS MT that reports back if the SMS message has been delivered, for every message sent. It is sourced directly from the handset.

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DTMF Code

Dual-tone Multi-frequency code is a response code that is generated when an end-user presses the numbers on a mobile or landline phone’s keypad. Each number is uniquely identified with the DTMF code that can be received and interpreted on the receiver side. DTMF code signaling enables reception of information from the end user e.g. PIN code during a voice call.

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F

Fixed Sender ID

A predetermined numeric sender identification (the mobile number that is displayed on the recipient's cell phone) that cannot be modified according to user needs and follows the standard MSISDN format - The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector recommendations limits the maximum length of an MSISDN to 15 digits. 1-3 digits are reserved for country code with prefixes not included.

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Flash SMS

A message that appears on the recipient's mobile screen directly. Recipient does not need go to the mobile phone inbox to read the message, nor is the message allocated to the SMS inbox.

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G

Geo-redundancy

Geo-redundancy signifies a computer system operating at two or more geographical locations as a redundancy in case the primary system fails due to any reason.

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Global Title

A Global Title (GT) is an address used in the SCCP protocol for routing signaling messages on various telecommunications networks. Theoretically, global titles are unique addresses which refer to only one destination, but in practice those destinations can change over a given time-frame.

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GSM

A mobile telephony standard introduced in the early 1990s by European Telecommunications Standard Institute. First launched in Finland in 1991, GSM soon became universally adopted in Europe, and then worldwide. GSM currently accounts for 90% of the world’s mobile market, which makes it the default mobile standard.

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H

HAProxy

HAProxy or High Availability Proxy is a free and open source software which is most commonly used to improve the performance of a server environment by spreading requests to multiple servers and thus enhancing the speed and reliability of the server environment. The software can be run on Linux, Solaris and FreeBSD operating systems.

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HLR (Home Location Register)

HLR (Home Location Register) is a database that contains various information about all of the mobile subscribers of a mobile network such as the mobile numbers, services, whether the numbers have been ported to another network and similar information.

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HTTP

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. Hypertext is the type of structured text that uses logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing the text. Basically, HTTP is the protocol of exchanging and transferring hypertext.

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I

IMSI

An International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is a unique number associated with all Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) network mobile phone users used for identifying a GSM subscriber.

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Inbound Message

An inbound message is a mobile message routed from an end user's mobile device and delivered to a mobile phone or an application. It may also be regarded as a Mobile Originated message or MO signifying that the starting point of a message is a mobile phone.

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Instant Form Filling

Instant Form Filling is a tool within the Mobile Identity Solution that enables users to automatically and instantly fill in various forms on your website or application when they’re using them on their mobile.

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ISO 27001

ISO 27001 is a family of standards that deals with information security management set by the International Organization for Standardization. They are designed to help organizations and companies manage the security of various information such as financial information, intellectual property, employee details or information entrusted by third parties.

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ISO 9001

ISO 9001 is a family of standards that deals with quality management set by the International Organization for Standardization. They provide guidance and tools for companies and organizations who want to ensure that their products and services consistently meet a certain level of quality.

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K

Keyword

A word that clients choose in order to identify their campaign and inbound SMS messages. It is the first word that appears in the message before the blank space, and that end user is asked to include to the message they’re sending out to a company or institution. For example, a wine brand can offer customers to text WINE (keyword) to a shortcode to participate in sweepstakes.

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L

Local Time Stamp

A feature of SMS-MT that displays the timestamp of the home network local time. It is particularly useful for international mobile service providers and enterprises, which need to have the exact sending time adapted to the local time.

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M

MNO (Mobile Network Operator)

A mobile network operator or MNO, also known as a wireless service provider, wireless carrier, cellular company, or mobile network carrier, is a provider of wireless communications services that owns or controls all the elements necessary to deliver services to end-users, including radio spectrum allocation, wireless network infrastructure and other necessary components.

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MO (Mobile Originated)

A mobile message routed from an end user's mobile device and delivered to a mobile phone or an application. In the latter case, incoming messages can be seen over a specialized web interface, which usually offers additional reporting and analytics abilities. Incoming messages can be forwarded to SMPP, HTTP push or pull, or email. Also, they can trigger further actions - an automatic reply, opening of a support ticket etc.

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Mobile Data Penetration

Mobile data penetration represents the number of smartphones in a country. It is usually presented as a percentage of the population using smartphones.

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Mobile Identity

Mobile Identity is a verification solution that consists of several real-time identification and authorization services that enable improved UX and a stronger authentication layer to protect online transactions for user-facing applications and websites on mobile.

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Mobile Number Portability

Mobile Number Portability (MNP) enables mobile telephone users to retain their mobile telephone numbers when switching from one mobile network operator to another. Since its launch in Singapore in 1997, over a hundred markets today allow MNP. Most MNOs offer this service for free or for a nominal price, enabling users to change numbers or switch operators with ease.

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Mobile Phone Penetration

Mobile Phone Penetration refers to the number of SIM cards or mobile phone number in a certain country, it does not refer to the number of mobile phone devices.

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MSIN (Mobile Subscription Identification Number)

MSIN stands for Mobile Subscription Identification Number. It is a unique number, consisting of maximum 10 digits, used to differentiate a mobile phone by a mobile network operator (MNO).

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MSISDN

A number uniquely identifying a subscription in a GSM or a UMTS mobile network. An MSISDN is the phone number associated with a single SIM card, in other words, the number you call or send an SMS message to.

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MT (Mobile Terminated)

A mobile message routed from a client or an application and delivered to the end user’s mobile phone is a called a SMS MT (Mobile Terminated). The word Terminated means that the message is terminated (delivered) on a mobile device. It is also known as an Outbound SMS.

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MVNO

A mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) is a company that provides mobile phone service but does not have its own licensed frequency allocation of radio spectrum, nor does it necessarily have the entire infrastructure required to provide mobile telephone service.

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N

Number Lookup Packages

Also known as HLR (Home Location Register) Lookup or Network Query. It is a central database that contains details of each mobile phone subscriber that is authorized to use the GSM core network.

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Numeric Sender ID

Numeric Sender ID is the default sender type of an SMS message in standard MSISDN form. Recipients can reply to messages with a numeric sender ID, meaning that it can be used for two-way messages.

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O

Opt-in

The opt-in function is connected with getting permission from the customer to send promotional materials and messages to his or her's email, mobile number or chat application.

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Opt-out

The opt-out function is an action where a customer requests the stopping of sending promotional materials and messages to his or her's email, mobile number or chat application.

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OTA

A feature of SMS-MT that sends over-the-air configuration messages, such as software updates, configuration settings and security locks.

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OTP (One-Time PIN) Code

A one-time PIN code is a code that is valid for only one login session or transaction using a mobile phone. It is often used in two factor authentication or 2FA to provide an extra layer of security for the user when he uses an ATM machine or tries to login to a service from a different computer.

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Outbound Message

An outbound message is a message routed from a client or an application and delivered to the end user’s mobile phone. It may also be regarded as a Mobile Terminated message or MT, signifying that the endpoint of the message is a mobile phone.

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P

P2A (Person-2-Application) Messaging

P2A (person-to-application) SMS messaging is the process of sending messages from a mobile user to an application. It is often referred to as Mobile Originated (MO). The process requires the end-user to start the interaction with a business or company by sending an SMS to an application.

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P2P (Person-to-Person) Messaging

P2P SMS is process of sending mobile messages from one user to another, where an SMS message travels between two mobile subscribers. This is the usual traffic between subscribers of mobile operators. The main usage examples include basic text messaging, various chat services etc.

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PCI DSS

PCI DSS – PCI DSS stands for Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard which is a security standard for companies and organisations that handle credit card information. It was created by the Payment Card Industry Standards Council to increase the security of cardholder data.

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Personal Data Verification

Personal Data Verification is a user data verification service within the Mobile Identity solution. Personal Data Verification is technically similar to Silent Mobile Verification, the significant difference being that more user information is transferred in the API calls.

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Premium SMS Number

A Premium SMS number is a 3-7 digit number used for messaging that charges a premium price to the end user per sent SMS. End user pays a higher price of the message than for a normal P2P message.

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PSTN

PSTN stands for Public Switched Telephone Network. It is the aggregate of the world’s circuit-switched telephone networks. Both landline and mobile numbers are covered by this abbreviation when someone is referring to PSTN networks.

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Push Notifications

Push notifications are messages received by mobile devices (or other computing devices). Push notifications originate from a server and are delivered to users who have installed an app and have opted-in to receive notifications from the app. Mobile users don't have to be using the app in question or even their device to receive incoming push notifications.

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R

RCS (Rich Communication Services)

RCS (Rich Communication Services) is an IP-based messaging service provided to mobile phone users through mobile operator networks. It’s used for both Person-to-Person (P2P) and Application-to-Person (A2P) communications and incorporates the global reach of SMS with the rich features of chat apps (such as WhatsApp, Viber, and Facebook Messenger) to deliver more interactive, compelling experiences to users.

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Retry

Retry refers to the process of the SMSC retrying to deliver an SMS message that failed to be delivered during a time period the message is valid, which is usually 48 hours. If a delivery of a message fails the SMSC starts a retry procedure that tries to deliver the message periodically.

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Roaming

Roaming is a term that refers to the ability of a mobile phone user to use his mobile phone for making or receiving voice calls, sending or receiving messages and data while travelling outside the coverage of his mobile service provider. The mobile phone uses the subscriber’s identity to access the network in the visited country.

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RTP

RTP stands for Real-time Transport Protocol. The protocol is used for delivering audio and video over IP networks.

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S

Short Code

A Short Code is a 3-6 digit number which enables sending and receiving of SMS messages, usually in SMS sweepstakes, polling, TV voting etc. With short codes, sending and receiving messages is limited to national borders. They can be leased from mobile network operators or through specialized messaging companies that also provide consultancy and tech support.

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Silent Mobile Verification

Silent Mobile Verification is a verification service that is an integral part of Mobile Identity. It is also known as HTTP Header Enrichment. Silent Mobile Verification works by matching the user’s phone number (MSISDN) with the Mobile Network Operator data smoothly without interupting user experience.

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SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) Card

A chip card that stores the IMSI, and serves to identify the mobile subscriber and provide mobile service. A SIM card also can serve as a memory storage device, e.g. to store contacts or SMS messages, network information or apps particular to the mobile user’s mobile operator.

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SIP

SIP stands for Session Initiation Protocol. It is used to set up and control a part of a voice call. SIP is paired with RTP – a protocol for media content delivery.

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SLA

A service-level agreement (SLA) is an agreement between two or more parties, where one is the customer and the others are service providers and is a part of a service contract where a service is formally defined. SLA agreement defines the level of service quality, availability of service and the procedure of reporting and resolving problems that occur.

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SMPP

The short message peer-to-peer protocol (SMPP) is a telecommunications industry protocol for exchanging SMS messages between SMS peer entities such as short message service centers (SMSCs).

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SMS Aggregator

Mobile telecom company with multiple agreements with mobile operators to send and receive data in and out of the operator's SMSC, acting as an intermediary between companies (i.e. content and brand owners) that want to interact with end users (through their mobile phones; i.e. via SMS) and mobile operators.

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SMS Delivery

Distribution of mobile messages, including SMS and Premium SMS, directly to the end-users' mobile devices.

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SMS Gateway

An SMS gateway is, generally speaking, a point of entry or exit for SMS messages. It is a network node equipped for interfacing with another network that uses the same or different protocols. The most common protocols used are SMPP, HTTP, UCP/EMI and SOAP.

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SMS Hubbing

A new structure for international SMS traffic, reshaping international mobile inter-operability by implementing hubs to intermediate SMS traffic and offer a larger SMS coverage. The GSM Association (GSMA) found in SMS hubbing the solution to a problem that limits the continuing growth of international SMS, culminating with the development of SMS hubbing trials in 2006, part of the Open Connectivity project.

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SMS Termination

SMS termination refers to the delivery of an SMS message either from one mobile user to another (P2P) or from an application to a mobile user (A2P). It signifies that the message was delivered to a mobile phone user.

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SMS Transliteration

SMS transliteration is a process of message text conversion from one script to another. It is used, for example, to transform a text written in Greek or Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet. The transliteration process does not translate the message, it converts it into another alphabet and offers easiness of reaching an international base of users.

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SMSC

A short message service center (SMSC) is a mobile telecommunication networks element which stores, forwards, converts and delivers SMS messages and maintains unique timestamps in text messages.

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SS7

Signaling System #7 (SS7) is a set of telephony signaling protocols which are used to set up most of the world's public switched telephone calls, also used in mobile messaging, prepaid billing and other applications.

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T

Text-to-Speech

Text-to-Speech is Infobip’s automated service that converts written text into an audio file. It’s being used as a feature of the Voice messages service.

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TON/NPI Settings

This SMS-MT feature allows senders to manage originator and destination settings.

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U

UDH (User Data Header)

User Data Header (UDH) is a binary structure which may be present at the start of a short message in an SMS. It does not contain any text, but rather specifies how the message should be processed. Basically, it's a part of the SMS which tells the receiving handset what type of message being sent. This is done to ensure correct SMS message delivery.

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Unicode

Industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the world's writing systems. As an SMS MT feature, it allows any content to be sent within a message.

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USSD Centre

USSD centre is a collection of hardware and software required to interconnect two or more disparate networks, including performing protocol conversion and is based upon the ability of the delivery agent or the source to send and receive USSD messages. It routes USSD messages from the signaling network to a service application and back and is often reffered to as „USSD gateway“.

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What is USSD?

USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) is a session-based text communication protocol available on every GSM-enabled mobile device.

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V

VLN (Virtual Long Number)

A Virtual Long Number (VLN) is a typical mobile number provided by mobile operators, consisting of 12 digits (eg. 442312345678).

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VoIP

Voip or Voice over Internet Protocol is a technology that allows phone service over the Internet by transmitting voice over Internet Protocol networks.

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VPN

VPN or Virtual Private Network is a private network that enables users to send and receive data securely across a public network while having the benefits of a private network.

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VPN tunnelling

VPN tunnelling is a concept that refers to sending and receiving data over a VPN securely.

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W

WAP Push

Allows WAP content to be pushed to the mobile handset with minimum user intervention.

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